Gen Z Literature
- Turner, Anthony Robert. “Generation Z: Technology’s Potential Impact in Social Interest of Contemporary Youth.” MA Research Paper. Adler Graduate School, Richfield, 2013.Turner’s paper examines how members of Generation Z utilize current technology and how this has affected their “social interest,” which he defines as a movement towards a form of community, as well as their worldview. He explores the impact that technology has on this generation’s behavioral patterns and offers recommendations to parents, teachers, and clinicians.Touching upon Adler’s association of social interest with identity and empathy, Turner’s paper posits that, as they were born into a globalized society proficient in social media and other media platforms, they have continued the trend of becoming networked as individuals rather than socially embedded in groups. This has led to looser and more fragmented networks and caused many in Generation Z to be socially disinterested. He suggests that parents, teachers, and clinicians be aware of how technology and its use in the lives of this generation.
- Ferincz, Adrienn, Lilla Hortovanyi, Roland Z. Szabo, and David F. Tarody. “Changes in the Way of Work: Generation ‘Z’ at the Labour Market.” Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, 20XX.The authors conducted focus groups to explore Generation Z’s attitudes towards work. They made the surprising discovery that, while empowerment and flexible working conditions were important, this generation is highly concerned with feeling safe and having a sense of belonging. The authors also found that Generation Z had an ambivalent attitude towards tele-commuting and felt a strong desire towards traditional social interactions in the workplace.
- Twenge, Jean M, W. Keith Campbell, and Elise C. Freeman. “Generational Differences in Young Adults’ Life Goals, Concern for Other, and Civic Orientation, 1966-2009.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 102, no. 5, 2012, pp. 1045-1062.In their article, Twenge, Campbell, and Freeman review the results of studies concerningGeneration X and Millennials. They found that, at the same age, Gen X’ers and Millennials were more concerned with extrinsic values (money, image, and fame) than intrinsic values (self-acceptance, affiliation, and a sense of community) than were Baby Boomers. Concern for others, how the authors define empathy, declined but was off-set by a rise in community service, though the latter can potentially be attributed to its becoming increasingly required for high school graduation.While Millennials seem to have slowed the trend begun by Gen X towards a reduced sense of community feeling, they did not reverse the trend and continued a decline in civic orientation (which the authors describe as interest in social problems, political participation, and trust in government, among other actions). In particular, Gen X and Millennials saw large decreases in actions to help the environment. These cohort studies focused on generational differences in life goals, concern for other, and civic orientation.
- Millennials: Confident. Connected. Open to Change. Pew Research Center, 2010.Part of their series of surveys into Millennials, this report expands on the original 2006 survey done in association with PBS. In an attempt to compare Millennials with how older generations felt and acted at the same age, Pew staff recognize that life cycle effects, period effects, and cohort effects all contribute to result in the generational differences, and a longer term study is needed to truly unpack and analyze how these processes will shape Millennials.The studies found that Millennials are entering adulthood confident, self-expressive, liberal, upbeat, and open to change. While more diverse, both ethnically and racially, than older generations, they are less likely to have served in the military and are less religious. Millennials are, however, also set to become the most educated generation in American history and are the first generation to be steeped in digital technology. Having come of age in a period of large-scale terrorist attacks, Millennials are wary of human nature and less skeptical of government while believing that government should do more to solve problems.
- Troska, Lauren M. “The Study of Generations: A Timeless Notion within a Contemporary Context.” Undergraduate Honors Thesis. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2016.Troska seeks to demonstrate the growing generation gap between the three post-World War II generations and offers insights into how we examine generations. The sense that older generations, because of a generation gap, is unable to understand younger generations is evident in her paper, and she writes that generational discourses are often used by older generations to comment on societal changes brought on by younger generations.However, she also writes that the many identities and cultures within each generation not only make it hard for generations to relate, but also make generational discourse difficult. Troska attempts to offer new perspectives on how to study generations and ways to increase inter-generational understanding, collaboration, and cooperation.
- Berkup, Sezin Baysal. “Working with Generations X and Y in Generation Z Period: Management of Different Generations in Business Life.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 5, no.19, 2014, pp. 218-229.Baysal Berkup discusses the importance of identifying the characteristic features of the generations currently in the workplace and the generation soon to enter the workplace. Writing that this is necessary to motivate and manage these employees, the author describes how the transitional, in terms of technology, Generation X works to live and employs high self-confidence and a tendency towards teamwork in order to seek a work-life balance. Generation Y, or Millennials, seek learning opportunities, are innovative, and search for a meaningful career and older mentor figures. Baysal Berkup states that both generations are more willing than earlier generations to change jobs if unsatisfied and both expect a more easy-going working environment than their parents’ and grandparents’ generations.These employees must be managed differently than earlier generations given their, generally, better education, easier access to information due to greater technology savvy and exponential improvements in technology, and desire for career fulfillment and success. Baysal Berkup concludes by writing that these generations can be utilized to create tremendous value for their employers if managed properly.
- Millennials: Coming of Age. Goldman Sachs, www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/pages/millennials.Consisting of key data and information points collected by Goldman Sachs, the website provides information on how this generation will impact business and the economy.
- Beall, George. “8 Key Differences Between Gen Z and Millennials.” www.huffingtonpost.com/george-beall/8-key-differences-between_b_12814200.html.Beall posits that there are 8 key differences between two of the youngest generations. From lower attention spans and better multi-tasking ability to a greater entrepreneurial spirit and more global view, Gen Z differs significantly from Millennials.
- Hobbes, Michael. “Why millennials are facing the scariest financial future of any generation since the Great Depression.” Huffington Post, highline.huffingtonpost.com/articles/en/poor-millennials. Accessed 22 January 2018.Hobbes opens by describing many of the accusations that have been leveled against Millennials by other generations and detailing several data points to counter these stereotypes and describe the financial situation confronting Millennials. Hobbes describes the uncertainty facing Millennials and how decades of decisions placed this generation in a position to be the first ever generation poorer than their parents. Case studies and additional statistics follow to demonstrate the results of the referenced poor decision making.
- Summers, Edward. “Generation-Z’s Emerging Economy will be ‘Tidal Force.’” www.libn.com/2017/08/01/summers-generation-zs-emerging-economy-will-be-tidal-force/Dr. Edward Summers, Chief Strategy and Planning Officer at Long Island University, states that Generation Z, with their digital nativism, social media savvy, and entrepreneurialism and pragmatism will have a tremendous impact on the economy. He cites a panel hosted by LIU and its agreement that this generation has a heightened awareness of the “brass tacks of college education” having seen the experience of Millennials struggling to find jobs after the financial collapse of 2008. He argues that Long Island as a whole needs a coordinated strategy among industry, government, non-profit institutions, and communities to attract and retain Generation Z.
- Lathrop, Kevin. “Millennials Want to Pay Healthcare Bills: Providers Must Meet Them Where They (Already) Pay.” www.linkedin.com/pulse/millennials-want-pay-healthcare-bills-providers-must-meet-lathrop.Lathrop, the President of TriZetto provider Solutions, argues that insurance providers should adopt payment methods utilized by top online retailers to collect payments from Millennials – online.
- Pandolfo, Chris. “Surprise! Generation Z Most OPPOSED to Single-Payer Health Care.” www.conservativereview.com/news/surprise-generation-z-most-opposed-to-single-payer-health-care/Citing a Steven S. Hornstein Center for Policy, Polling, and Analysis poll, Pandolfo lays out the argument that Gen Z will be more conservative than previous generations. Respondents under 30 were less supportive of single-payer health care than other generations, more supportive of an insurance system with only private companies, and a major responded that reducing the cost of health care was more important than guaranteeing coverage.
- Emmons, William R, Ana Hernandez Kent, and Lowell R. Ricketts. “Essay No. 2: A Lost Generation? Long-Lasting Wealth Impacts of the Great Recession on Young Families.” The Demographics of Wealth, 2018 Series: How Education, Race and Birth Year Shape Financial Outcomes, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, St. Louis, 2018.This is second in a series of essays written by the Center for Household Financial Stability at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. The series seeks to research how a family’s demographics – educational attainment, race and ethnicity, and birth year, among others – are related to the family’s financial outcomes. The Center based their results on data from nearly 48,000 families born throughout the 20th Century.This essay focused on six groups of families whose family heads were born in the 1930’s through 1980’s. The study showed that families whose head was born in 1960 or later were less likely to have financially recovered from the Great Recession than families headed by someone born in the decades before 1960. Three important findings are identified in this study of how wealth and birth year are linked: there is a life cycle for wealth; members of all birth cohorts lost wealth around the Great Recession but only the aforementioned families whose family head was born in 1960 or later had failed to “get back on track” by 2016; the 1980s cohort is at the greatest risk of becoming a “lost generation” for wealth accumulation, meaning that Millennials are well below the level of wealth accumulation predicted by examining earlier generations at the same age. While there is optimism that they can recover, this trend is worrying given that assets are unlikely to appreciate in the near future as rapidly as they had between 2010 and 2016, where this cohort continued to lose ground against older generations.
- 14. Miller, Lee J and Wei Lu. “Gen Z is Set to Outnumber Millennials Within a Year.” www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-20/gen-z-to-outnumber-millennials-within-a-year-demographic-trends
Utilizing data compiled by the United Nations, Bloomberg projects that members of Gen Z will outnumber Millennials in 2019 and will comprise 32 percent of the global population. The article elaborates on other key generational differences, including self-awareness vs. self-centeredness and problem-solving ability. Potential economic impacts emanating from this demographic shift are also described, including benefits for the service and “gig” economy.
- Arnett, Autumn A. “3 Things to Know About the Students Arriving on Campus.” www.educationdive.com/news/3-things-to-know-about-the-students-arriving-on-campus-this-month/529723/
As Gen Z comes to campus for the first time, Arnett lists three things that should be considered: an increased need for a high-touch, personalized approach; there will likely be more protests; and the importance of flexibility.
- The Deloitte Millennial Survey 2018. Deloitte, https://www2.deloitte.com/global/en/pages/about-deloitte/articles/millennialsurvey.html
Deloitte’s seventh annual Millennial survey of 10,000 Millennial and 1,800 Gen Z respondents across more than forty total countries lists these generations’ opinions on business. Geopolitical and social concerns spawned increased business activism by these generations and saw a diminished view of business ethics and a decrease in loyalty to businesses. The authors of the survey posit that this is the time for businesses to position themselves as agents of positive change.